After the advent of the micro-processor in the 1970s, the computer began taking steps towards personalization. This culminated with Apple’s Macintosh. While penetrating into the field of printing, Apple also positioned the Mac as a medium for expression. Symbolic was the bundling of the simple development system HyperCard into the early Macs. Graphic designers participated in the production of multimedia contents, which integrated audio, video, and text. The fact that development was possible using a single computer, helped to nurture a flourishing movement of independent creation, with a flurry of small-press floppy disks and CD-ROMs being published.

Kazuhiko Kato, Kuniyoshi Kaneko,  Haruhiko Shono Alice, 1991 Multi-media contents, CD-ROM Production: Synergy / Publisher: Toshiba EMI

Haruhiko Shono GADGET, 1993 Multi-media contents, CD-ROM Production: Synergy / Publisher: Toshiba EMI

Taruho Inagaki Taruho Futurica, 1993 E-book, Floppy disk Design: Yasuhito Nagahara / Music: Yukio Fujimoto / Package: Heikichi Harata / Production: Voyager Japan

Gento Matsumoto Pop Up Computer, 1994 Multimedia contents, CD-ROM Publisher: Ask Corporation, TV Tokyo, SOFTX

Catalog for Kyoko Okazaki exhibition, 1994 Floppy disk Production: P–House, Japan Art Today / Publisher: Aloalo International

Rujirushi Rujirom, 1994 Multimedia contents, CD-ROM Production: Voyager Japan

Michio Tomita Pasokon sōseiki, 1995 E-book, CD-ROM Design: Yasuhito Nagahara / Production: Voyager Japan

Nobuyoshi Araki Journey Girl, 1996 Digital photo book, CD-ROM Art direction: Naomi Enami / Design: Masaki Kimura / Production: Digitalogue

John Maeda〈Reactive Books series〉①Reactive Square, 1995 Flying Letters, 1996 ②12 o’clocks, 1997 Tap, Type, Write, 1998 ①Interactive contents, Floppy disk, Booklet ②Interactive contents, CD-ROM, Booklet Production: Digitalogue

〈Morisawa Poster series〉, 1996 Generative graphics, Offset print, Poster, 103×72.8cm Production: Morisawa

Sensorium Project, Sensorium, 1996 Web project, IWE ’96 Japan zone theme pavilion Provided by: Internet 1996 World Exposition Japan Organization Committee


Man and Writing, 1999 Multimedia contents, CD-ROM Editorial supervisor: Ikko Tanaka, Fumio Yajima / Art direction: Mitsuhiro Miyazaki / Design: Toru Shimizu, AXIS design / Production: Morisawa

Kyushu-Okinawa Summit Official Guide CD-ROM, 2000 Multimedia contents, CD-ROM, Card Editorial supervisor: Masaki Fujihata, Kurayoshi Takara, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan / Design: Yasuhito Nagahara / Programming: Wolfgang Muench / Planning: General Administrative Agency of the Cabinet / Production: Japan Information Center, NHK Enterprise 21